The international standards for preventing and combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism envisage the institution in each country of a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), charged with receiving and analyzing reports on suspicious transactions and other information related to money laundering, the associated predicate offences and the financing of terrorism, and with transmitting the results of its analyses to the competent bodies for subsequent investigation.
The FIU for Italy was established at the Bank of Italy on 1 January 2008 pursuant to Legislative Decree 231/2007, issued in implementation of Directive 2005/60/EC (the Third Anti-Money-Laundering Directive). The decree abolished the Italian Foreign Exchange Office (UIC), the entity that had previously carried out the tasks of Financial Intelligence Unit.
The FIU performs its functions autonomously and independently using financial, human and technical resources assigned by the Bank of Italy. The organization and activity of the FIU are governed by a Bank of Italy regulation.
IIn order to prevent and combat money laundering and terrorist financing, the FIU carries out financial analysis of the suspicious transactions reported by persons subject by law to reporting requirements (financial intermediary, non-financial enterprises and professionals) and examines any other fact that could be related to money laundering or terrorist financing. To this end it collects additional data from reporting parties, including by means of inspections, cooperates with foreign FIUs and, within Italy, exchanges information and cooperates with financial supervisory authorities, the judicial authorities and other competent authorities, and law enforcement bodies.
In addition the FIU: